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Classification of Mammals

Order Family
Name
Common Name/
Examples
No. of
Species
Distribution
of Order
General Characteristics of Order
Monotremes Ornithorhynchidae Platypus 1 Australia Lay eggs from which youngs are hatched.
Tachyglossidae Echidna 2
Marsupialia Didelphidae Opossums 65 Australia, S and C America Premature birth of young and continued development outside the womb.
Thylacinidae Tasmanian wolf 1
Dasyuridae Native cats, marsupial mice 48
Myrmecobiidae Numbat 1
Notoryctidae Marsupial moles 2
Peramelidae Bandicoots 22
Thylacomyidae Burrowing bandicoots 20
Caenolestidae rat opossums 7
Phalangeridae Phalangers, cuscuses 15
Burramyidae pigmy possums 6
Petauridae Gliding phalangers 25
Macropodidae Kangaroos, wallabies 47
Phascolarctidae Koala 1
Vombatidae Wombat 4
Tarsipedidae Honey possum 1
Insectivora Erinaceidae Hedgehogs, gymnures 14 Europe, N and S America, Asia, Australia Active mainly at night, do not need to rely on vision for orientation.
Talpidae Moles 22
Tenrecidae Tenrecs 20
Potamogalidae Otter shrews 3
Chrysochloridae Golden moles 11
Solenodontidae Solenodon, almiqui 2
Soricidae Shrews 291
Macroscelididae Elephant shrews 28
Tupaiidae Tree shrews 15
Chiroptera Pteropodidae Old World fruit bats, flying foxes 154 Europe, N and S America, Asia, Africa, Australia Insectivorous, nocturnal, migrate annually to and from summer roosts and winter migration sites, use echolocation for orientation, order defined by true flight.
Rhinopomatidae Mouse-tailed bats 3
Emballonuridae Sheath-tailed or sac-winged bats 50
Nycteridae Slit-faced or hollow-faced bats 13
Megadermatidae False vampires 5
Hipposideridae Old World leaf-nosed bats 60
Rhinolophidae Horseshoe bats 70
Noctilionidae Bulldog bats 2
Mormoopidae Insectivorous bats 9
Phyllostomatidae American leaf-nosed bats 120
Desmodontidae Vampire bats 3
Natalidae Funnel-eared bats 4
Furipteridae Smoky bats 2
Thyropteridae Disk-winged bats 2
Myzopodidae Old World sucker-footed bats 1
Vespertilionidae Common bats 290
Mystacinidae New Zealand short-tailed bats 1
Molossidae Free-tailed bats 90
Rodentia Aplodontidae Mountain Beaver 1 Europe, Asia, N and S America, Africa, Australia One pair of upper and lower incisors which grow throughout life, broadly herbivorous, gnawing mechanism, clawed digits.
Sciuridae Squirrels, chipmunks, marmots 250
Cricetidae Field mice, voles, lemmings, muskrats 560
Muridae Old World rats and mice 450
Heteromyidae mice, pocket mice, kangaroo rats 75
Geomyidae Pocket gophers 40
Zapodidae Jumping and birch mice 10
Dipodidae Jerboas 25
Spalacidae Mole rats 3
Rhizomyidae Bamboo rats 18
Octodontidae Octodonts, degus 7
Echimyidae Spiny rats, rock rats 40
Ctenomyidae Tuco-tucos 26
Abrocomidae Abrocomes or chinchilla rats 2
Chinchillidae Chichillas, viscachas 6
Capromyidae Hutias, coupus 10
Dasyproctidae Pacas, agoutis 13
Dinomyidae Pacarana 1
Caviidae Cavies, guinea pigs 12
Hydrochoeridae Capybaras 2
Erethizontidae New World porcupines 8
Petromuridae Rock or dassie rat 1
Thryonomyidae Cane rats 2
Bathyergidae African mole rats 9
Hystricidie Old World porcupines 15
Castoridae Beavers 2
Anomaluridae Scaly-tailed squirrels 7
Ctenodactylidae Gundis 8
Pedetidae Cane jumping hare 1
Gliridae Dormice 20
Seleveniidae Jumping dormouse 1
Edentata Myrmecophagidae Anteaters 3 S and N America Reduced dentition, long sticky tongue, powerful clawed forefeet.
Bradypodidae Tree sloths 5
Dasypodidae Armadillos 20
Lagomorpha Ochotonidae Pikas 14 Europe, Asia, N and S America, Africa, Australia Herbivorous, well-developed incisors which grow continuously from roots, elongation of the limbs distally.
Leporidae Hares, rabbits 46
Carnivora Canidae Dogs, foxes, wolves, jackals 35 Europe, Asia, N and S America, Africa, Australia High level of intelligence, highly developed sense of smell, varied dentition, well developed carnassials.
Ursidae Bears, giant panda 7
Otariidae Eared seals, walrus 15
Procyonidae Racoons, lesser panda 15
Mustelidae Weasels, otters, skunks, badgers, minks 65
Phocidae Earless seals 20
Felidae Cats 35
Viverridae Civets, mongooses 70
Hyaenidae Hyenas 4
Cetacea Balaenidae Right whales 3 Europe, Asia, N and S America, Africa, Australia, Antarctica Breathe through blowholes, tapered body, develop young internally and give birth at sea, long breeding period, hearing is major sense, migrate seasonally.
Eschrichtiidae Grey whale 1
Balaenopteridae Rorquals, humpbacks 8
Platanistidae River dolphins 4
Delphinidae Dolphins, killer whales 30
Phocoenidae Porpoises 6
Monodontidae Beluga, narwhal 2
Physeteridae Sperm whales 3
Hyperoodontidae Beaked whales 15
Stenidae Long-snouted dolphins 4
Proboscidae Elephantidae African and Asian elephant 3 Asia, Africa Bulky bodies and elongated snout, each toe has heavy hoof nail, no canine teeth, herbivorous.
Sirenia Dugongidae Dugong 1 Australia, S America, Africa Herbivorous, totally aquatic, torpedo-shaped bodies, tough almost hairless skin, body contains much fat
Trichechidae Manatees 3
Perissodactyla Equidae horses, asses, donkeys, zebras 7 Asia, Africa, Europe Herbivorous, high-crowned grinding teeth.
Tapiridae Tapirs 4
Rhinocerotidae Rhinoceroses 5
Artiodactyla Tragulidae Chevrotains 4 Asia, Africa, C and S America Ruminants, herbivorous, cloven-hoofed, moderately large brain, migrate seasonally.
Antilocapridae Pronghorn 1
Giraffidae Giraffe, okapi 2
Cervidae Deer 35
Bovidae Cattle, goats, sheep, antelopes, gazelles 110
Camelidae Camels, llamas 4
Suidae Pigs 8
Tayassuidae Peccaries 3
Hippopotamidae Hippopotamuses 2
Primates Lemuridae Lemurs 14 Asia, Africa, S America (humans distributed worldwide) Omnivorous, multi-purpose dentition, large brain, body position upright, five-digit hands and feet, stereoscopic vision.
Cheirogaleidae Dwarf lemurs, mouse lemurs 4
Indriidae Indrii, sifaka, avali 4
Daubentoniidae Aye aye (lemur) 1
Lepilmuridae Sportive lemurs 2
Galagidae Galagos 7
Lorisidae Lorises, pottos, bushbabies 12
Tupaiidae Tree shrews 17
Tarsiidae Tarsiers 3
Callitrichidae Tamarins, marmosets 15
Cebidae New World monkeys 30
Cercopithecidae Old World monkeys 72
Hylobatidae Gibbons, siamangs 7
Pongidae Great apes: gorilla, chimpanzee, orangutan 10
Hominids Humans 1

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Last updated: 2005-01-17