Internal state of Russia precarious. Tsar politically isolated
and universally unpopular.
Bolsheviks, under Lenin's leadership, cultivate feelings of
discontent and organize strikes.
On March 8, government of Tsar Nicholas II introduces bread and
flour rationing in Petrograd. Mass strike begins. On third day
of protest police begin firing on striking workers.
The Petrograd Soviet of workers and the Duma for a 'Provisional
Committee', later to become a 'Provisional Government'.
Tsar Nicholas II abdicates.
Conflict in the dual power begins to emerge. Disagreement on
whether to continue the war (WWI) and war aims.
Lenin returns from exile in Switzerland. Change of Bolshevik
policy in supporting the provisional government. April Theses.
Lenin advocates overthrow of provisional government by the
soviets for the working class. Also advocated redistribution
of land to peasants and signature of peace treaty with Germany.
Policy of 'All Power to the Soviets'.
Demonstrations called by the Petrograd Soviet to outmaneuver
the Bolsheviks. Bolshevik support still strong. The July Days.
Kronstradt sailors supporting Bolsheviks demonstrate in
Petrograd. Demonstrators fired on and chaos followed. Prime
Minister Lvov forced to resign and replaced by Kerensky. Bolsheviks
held responsible for bloodshed and their newspapers closed and
warrants for arrest of leaders issued. Lenin and Stalin fled.
Trotsky and Kamenev imprisoned.
Kornilov Affair - General Kornilov tries to move on Petrograd
with his troops, under pretext of restoring order. Kerensky
appeals to Bolsheviks for help in defeating Kornilov. Lenin
recognized the opportunity and formed a Red Guard of Bolshevik
soldiers and workers, set up Military Revolutionary Committee.
Most of Kornilov's troops deserted, Kornilov arrested and
Bolshevik support increased further.
October Revolution. Bolsheviks agree to make seizure of power
'the order of the day'. Kerensky mobilizes troops too late and
they are defeated by troops loyal to the Bolsheviks. Insurrection,
led by Trotsky, now begins. All main public buildings occupied.
Kerensky flees. Bolsheviks assume power and effect series of