|First Crusade (1096-9)
||Proclaimed by Urban II to aid the Greeks against the Seljuk
Turks in Asia Minor, liberate Jerusalem and the Holy Land from
Seljuk domination, and safeguard pilgrim routes to the Holy
||Bohemond I, Godfrey of Bouillon, Raymond (Count of Toulouse),
Robert (Count of Flanders), Robert Curthose (Duke of Normandy),
Stephen (Count of Blois)
||Capture of Nicaea in Anatolia (Jun 1097); Turks vanquished at
Battle of Dorylaeum (Jul 1097); capture of Antioch in Syria
(Jun 1098), Jerusalem (Jul 1099). Godfrey of Bouillon became
ruler of the new Latin kingdom of Jerusalem, and defeated the
Fatimids of Egypt near Ascalon in Palestine (Aug 1099). Three
other crusader states were founded: Antioch, Edessa, Tripoli.
|Second Crusade (1147-8)
||Proclaimed by Eugenius III to aid the crusader states after the
Muslim reconquest of Edessa (1144).
||Conrad III of Germany, Louis VII of France
||German army heavily defeated by Turks near Dorylaeum (Oct 1147),
and the French at Laodicea (Jan 1148); Damascus in Syria
invested, but siege abandoned afetr four days (Jul 1148). The
crusaders' military reputation was destroyed, and the Syrian
Muslims united against the Latins.
|Third Crusade (1189-92)
||Proclaimed by Gregory VIII after Saladin's defeat of the Latins
at the Battle of Hattin (Jul 1187) and his conquest of
Jerusalem (Oct 1187).
||Frederick I Barbarossa, Philip II Augustus of France, Richard
I of England
||Cyprus conquered from Greeks (May 1191), and established as new
crusader kingdom (survived until 1489); capture of Acre in
Palestine (Jul 1191); Saladin defeated near Arsuf (Sep 1191);
three-year truce guaranteeing safe conduct of Christian pilgrims
to Jerusalem. Most cities and castles of the Holy Land remained
in Muslim hands.
|Fourth Crusade (1202-4)
||Proclaimed by Innocent III to recover the Holy Places
||Boniface of Montferrat
||Despite papal objections, crusade diverted from Egypt or
Palestine to (1)Zara, a Christian town in Dalmatia, conquered for
Venetians (Nov 1202); (2)Byzantium, where embroilment in
dynastic struggles led to sack of Constantinople (Apr 1204) and
foundation of Latin Empire of Constantinople (survived until
1261). The crusading movement was discredited; the Latins in
Palestine and Syria were hardly helped at all; the Byzantine
empire never fully recovered; and the opportunity was lost of a
united front between Latins and Greeks against the Muslims.
|Fifth Crusade (1217-21)
||Proclaimed by Innocent III when a six-year truce between the
kingdom of Jerusalem and Egypt expired.
||Andrew II of Hungary, John of Brienne (King of Jerusalem),
Leopold (Duke of Austria)
||Three indecisive expeditions against Muslims in Palestine
(1217); capture of Damietta in Egypt after protracted siege (May 1218 -
Nov 1219), further conquest attempted, but crusaders forced to
relinquish Damietta (Aug 1221) and withdrew.
|Sixth Crusade (1228-9)
||Emperor Frederick II, who first took the Cross in 1215, married
the heiress to the kingdom of Jerusalem in 1225. Excommunicated
by Gregory IX for delaying his departure, he finally arrived at
Acre in Sept 1228.
||Negotiations with Egyptians secured Jerusalem and other places,
including Bethlehem and Nazareth (Feb 1229); Frederick crowned
King of Jerusalem in Church of Holy Sepulchre (Mar 1229).
Jerusalem was held until recaptured by the Khorezmian Turks
|Seventh Crusade (1248-54)
||Proclaimed by Innocent IV after the fall of Jerusalem and defeat
of the Latin army near Gaza by the Egyptians and Khorezmians
||Louis IX of France
||Capture of Damietta (June 1249); defeat of Mansurah (Feb 1250);
surrender of crusaders during attempted withdrawal. Damietta
relinquished and large ransoms paid (May 1250). Louis spent
four years in Palestine, refortifying Acre, Caesarea, Joppa and
Sidon, and fruitlessly attempting to regain Jerusalem by
alliances with the Mameluks and Mongols.
|Eighth Crusade (1270-2)
||Proclaimed after the Mameluk conquest of Arsuf, Caesarea, Haifa
(1265), Antioch and Joppa (1268).
||Charles of Anjou (King of Naples-Sicily), Edward of England,
Louis IX of France
||Attacked Tunisia in N Africa (Jul 1270); Louis died in August;
Charles concluded treaty with Tunis and withdrew; Edward
negotiated 11 years' truce with Mameluks in Palestine. By 1291
the Latins had been driven from the Holy Land.